HUMAN MUSCLES

HUMAN MUSCLE LIST

MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
Depressor anguli oris mandible skin at corner of mouth pulls corner of mouth downward (frown)
Frontalis  Galea aponeurotica skin superior to orbit raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead
Levator palpebrae superioris Roof of orbit (lesser wing of sphenoid) skin of upper eyelid elevates upper eyelid (opens eye)
Corrugator supercilii upper medial border of orbit eyebrow furrows brow
Buccinator  maxillae and mandible orbicularis oris compresses check as in blowing or sucking
Mentalis  mandible skin of chin elevates and protrudes lower lip; pull chin skin into a pout
Orbicularis oculi  medial wall of orbit circular path around orbit closes eye
Orbicularis oris  muscle fibers surrounding mouth skin at corner of mouth closes, protrudes lips, shapes lips during speech
Platysma fascia over deltoid and pectoralis major. mandible draws lower lip downward and backwards (pouting); depresses mandible
Risorius  fascia over parotid skin at angle of mouth draws angle of mouth laterally as in tenseness
Zygomaticus major  zygomatic bone skin at angle of mouth draws angle of mouth upward (smiling)
MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
Masseter   maxilla and zygomatic arch ramus of mandible elevates and protrudes mandible, assists in side-to-side movements of mandible
Temporalis  parietal bone coronoid process of mandible elevates and protrudes mandible, assists in side-to-side movements of mandible
Lateral pterygoid Greater wing and lateral pterygoid process of sphenoid Mandibular condyle Depresses mandible as in opening the mouth
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE HEAD
Splenius capitis 7th cervical and first three thoracic vertebrae occipital bone and mastoid process extension of head; lateral flexion and rotation of cervical spine
Sternocleidomastoid   sternum and clavicle mastoid process flexion and rotation of head
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE SHOULDER (SCAPULA)
Levator scapulae  C1-C6 vertebral border of scapula elevates scapula 
Pectoralis minor  ribs 3-5 coracoid process of scapula pulls scapula anteriorly
Trapezius  occipital bone, spines of 7th cervical and all thoracic vertebrae clavicle and acromion and spine of scapula elevates clavicle, adducts, elevates or depresses scapula; extends head
Rhomboid major  spines of 2nd to 5th thoracic vertebrae vertebral border of scapula adducts scapula; works with the serratus anterior to fix the scapula against ribs
Rhomboid minor  spines of  7th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebrae vertebral border of scapula adducts scapula; works with the serratus anterior to fix the scapula against ribs
Serratus anterior  upper 9 ribs vertebral border of scapula protracts scapula; works with the rhomboids to fix scapula against ribs
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE ARM (HUMERUS)
Deltoid   acromion process and spine of scapula; clavicle deltoid tuberosity of humerus abducts, flexes, extends, and medial or lateral rotation
Latissimus dorsi  lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae; sacral and iliac crest intertubercular sulcus of humerus extends, adducts, rotates medially
Pectoralis major  clavicle, sternum intertubercular sulcus flexes, adducts, and rotates arm medially
Teres major  inferior angle of scapula intertubercular sulcus extension and medial rotation of arm
Rotator cuff muscles
Teres minor  inferior lateral border of scapula greater tubercle rotates arm laterally; extends and adducts arm
Subscapularis  subscapular fossa of scapula lesser tubercle rotates arm medially
Supraspinatus  supraspinous fossa of scapula greater tubercle assists deltoid in abducting arm
Infraspinatus  infraspinous fossa of scapula greater tubercle rotates arm laterally; adducts arm
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE FOREARM (RADIUS AND/OR ULNA)
Brachialis  anterior, distal humerus coronoid process of ulna flexes forearm
Brachioradialis  distal humerus superior to styloid process of radius flexes forearm
Biceps brachii  long head: supra- glenoid tubercle; short head: coracoid process  radial tuberosity flexes forearm; supinates
Pronator quadratus distal ulna distal radius, anteriolateral surface pronation
Triceps brachii  long head: inferior to glenoid cavity; medial and lateral head: humerus olecranon of ulna extension of forearm
MUSCLES ACTING ON ABDOMINAL WALL
Rectus abdominis  pubic crest and pubic symphysis costal cartilages (ribs 5-7) , xiphoid process compression of abdomen; lateral rotation and bending of vertebral column
Transverse abdominis  iliac crest, inguinal ligament xiphoid process, linea alba and pubis compression of abdomen
Internal oblique  Lumbodorsal fascia and iliac crest cartilages of last four ribs, linea alba compression of abdomen; lateral rotation and bending and vertebral column
External oblique  inferior 8 ribs (5-12) iliac crest, linea alba compression of abdomen; lateral rotation and bending and vertebral column
MUSCLES MOVING WRIST, HAND, AND FINGERS
Extensor carpi radialis longus.  lateral epicondyle of humerus 2nd metacarpal extension and abduction of wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris  medial epicondyle of humerus carpals and 5th metacarpal flexes and adducts wrist
Flexor digitorum superficialis  medial epicondyle of humerus middle phalanges flexes middle phalanges
Extensor digitorum  lateral epicondyle of humerus 2nd through 5th distal and middle phalanges extends phalanges
Palmaris longus medial epicondyle of humerus palmar aponeurosis weak flexor of wrist (sometimes absent) 
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THIGH (FEMUR) and/or LEG (TIBIA, FIBULA)
Quadriceps femoris
1. Rectus femoris  anterior inferior iliac spine patella via quadriceps tendon and then tibial tuberosity via patella ligament extends leg and flexes thigh
2. Vastus medialis  linea aspera [same as above] extends leg
3. Vastus lateralis  linea aspera [same as above] extends leg
4 Vastus intermedius  anterior femur [same as above] extends leg
Hamstrings
1. Semimembranosus  ischial tuberosity medial condyle of tibia flexes leg and extends thigh
2. Semitendinosus  ischial tuberosity proximal medial body tibia flexes leg and extends thigh
3. Biceps femoris  long head: ischial tuberosity; short head: linea aspera head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia flexes leg and extends thigh
Psoas major  transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae lesser trochanter flexes and rotates thigh laterally
Iliacus  iliac fossa tendon of psoas major [same as psoas major]
Gluteus maximus  iliac crest, sacrum and coccyx. linea aspera & gluteal tuberosity extends and rotates thigh
Gluteus medius  ilium greater trochanter abducts and rotates thigh medially
Gluteus minimus ilium greater trochanter abducts and rotates thigh medially
Adductor longus   pubic symphysis linea aspera adducts and rotates thigh medially
Adductor magnus   rami of pubis and ischium linea aspera adducts and rotates thigh medially
Gracilis  pubic symphysis proximal, medial tibia adducts thigh
Sartorius  anterior superior iliac spine proximal, medial tibia flexes leg, flexes thigh, and rotates it laterally, thus crossing the leg
Tensor fasciae latae  iliac crest tibia by way of the iliotibial tract (fascia lata) flexes and abducts thigh 

 

 

Gluteus maximus  iliac crest, sacrum and coccyx. linea aspera & gluteal tuberosity extends and rotates thigh
MUSCLE THAT MOVE FOOT AND TOES  
Tibialis anterior  lateral condyle and body of tibia 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Gastrocnemius  lateral and medial condyles of femur calcaneus by way of Achilles tendon plantar flexes foot
Soleus  head of fibula and medial border of tibia calcaneus by way of Achilles tendon plantar flexes foot
Fibularis longus  head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia 1st metatarsal plantar flexes and everts foot
Extensor digitorum longus  Lateral condyle of tibia middle and distal phalanges of all toes except big toe dorsiflexes and everts foot and extends toes
Flexor hallucis longus  Posterior surface of fibula inferior surface of distal phalanx of big toe flexes big toe
Extensor hallucis longus  anterior surface of fibula distal phalanx of big toe dorsiflexes and inverts foot and extends toes

A MUSCLE OF THE PELVIC FLOOR
Pubococcygeus posterior pubis coccyx The “Kegel excersie muscle” ; controls urine flow,  tightens the vaginal wall during intercourse, contracts during orgasm, important in ejaculation

 

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